The entire world supports the production of our favourite drink. Coffee and its consumption contribute significantly to our economy, making it a primary source of income for more than 2.5 million growers in India.
Arabica and Robusta are the two types of coffee grown in several parts of our country. Over 70% of the country's total coffee production is exported from India, primarily to countries like Italy, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, the Russian Federation, the United States, and Australia. But where specifically is coffee cultivated in India? Most of the nation's coffee is grown in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Odisha, with Karnataka producing the most of any of these states with more than 70% of the overall output.
We will discuss all of these different Indian states where coffee is grown in this article.
1. Karnataka - The Coffee Capital
Karnataka stands out as the largest coffee-producing state in India with an annual production of 2.33 lakh metric tonnes, or more than 70% of all coffee produced in India. The vast bulk of the 2.33 lakh metric tonnes of coffee harvested annually in Karnataka—averaging 1.58 lakh metric tonnes—are Robusta coffee beans . Another bean variety grown in 74,755 metric tonnes annually is arabica.
More than 60% of the territory in India utilized for coffee cultivation is occupied by coffee plantations, most of which are located in Karnataka. In India, there are more than 4500 such plantations, most elevated at 1,300 metres above sea level.
The district of Kodagu alone is responsible for more than 50% of the state of Karnataka's entire coffee production. In addition to Kodagu, prominent coffee-producing areas in Karnataka include Mysore, Chikmagalur, Hassan, and Shimoga.
In addition to having high overall production levels, Karnataka has some of the highest yield rates in the nation, averaging over 1,000 kilogrammes per hectare. Large-scale coffee farming in the state is made possible by the state's advantageous temperature and climate conditions.
2. Kerala - Where Coffee Meets the Coast
The second-largest producer of coffee in India is the southernmost state of Kerala, with a production of 67,700 metric tonnes. In actuality, it accounts for more than 20% of India's overall coffee production. Over 65,000 metric tonnes of Robusta coffee are produced annually in Karnataka, which produces the most coffee. In contrast, only about 2,055 metric tonnes of Arabica coffee are produced annually.
Wayanad and Travancore, which account for over 95% of Kerala's total coffee crop, are the state's two main coffee-producing regions. Coffee is also grown in Nelliampathies, Kozhikode, Palakkad, and Malappuram, though to a lesser level. Kerala grows coffee plants at elevations of 1,200 metres, similar to Karnataka. Wayanad is one of the key areas in the nation cultivating robusta coffee, producing between 50,000 and 60,000 tonnes each year.
The soil in Wayanad is extremely fruitful due to the overabundance of sunlight and rainfall, and the mild environment is ideal for growing coffee and tea. One of the countless attractions the area offers visitors is a tour of the lush, green coffee and tea farms or a stay at one of them.
3. Tamil Nadu - A Rising Force in Coffee
The southern state of Tamil Nadu, which produces just under 17,875 metric tonnes of coffee, comes in second on this list. It produces a significant amount of coffee, accounting for over 5% of the nation's overall production. Arabica coffee beans are the most widely produced item in the state, followed by Robusta coffee beans. The main coffee-growing areas in Tamil Nadu are Coimbatore, Salem, Nilgris, and Pulneys. With a yearly production of more than 7600 Metric Tonnes, Pulneys produces the most coffee of these four locations.
Tamil Nadu's journey in coffee production has been on an upward trajectory. The state's diverse topography, ranging from hills to plains, provides versatile conditions for coffee cultivation. This variation in climate zones allows for the cultivation of different coffee varieties.
Tamil Nadu has been venturing into the realm of specialty coffee, focusing on quality over quantity. This shift towards producing high-grade beans has caught the attention of both domestic and international markets. The state's dedication to refining its coffee is positioning it as a rising force in the industry.
With more than 16,000 hectares of Arabica coffee growing in Tamil Nadu in the fiscal year 2022, Pulneys and Bodi districts led the nation. Due to a tiger reserve in the area, Tamil Nadu's Annamalai district had the least area under Arabica coffee growing for the same year.
4. Andhra Pradesh - The Coffee Frontier
Nestled in the southern part of India, Andhra Pradesh has emerged as a notable coffee producer. The moderate climate and abundant rainfall provide an ideal environment for coffee cultivation. But what sets Andhra Pradesh apart is its diversity in coffee types. The state produces both Arabica and Robusta beans, each with its distinct flavour profile.
Andhra Pradesh is now India's fourth-largest coffee producer, with an annual output rate of 7,425 metric tonnes, including Arabica and Robusta beans. Araku Valley in Andhra Pradesh, formerly a secluded and inaccessible area, now produces the internationally renowned and award-winning Araku Coffee. The incredible development of the region, driven by sustainability, innovation, and community, is revealed in Travel + Leisure India & South Asia.
Andhra Pradesh shares its borders with coffee giants like Karnataka and Odisha. This geographical proximity has led to a dynamic exchange of farming practices and knowledge. The state has adopted effective techniques from these neighbours, fine-tuning its coffee production methods.
5. Odisha - A Hidden Gem in Coffee Production
With an annual output of 550 Metric Tonnes, the eastern state of Odisha is one of India's top coffee-producing states. Arabica, the variety of coffee grown in Odisha, thrives in regions with high rainfall and moderate temperatures. Koraput, Rayagada, Phulbani, and Keonjhar are Odisha's four principal coffee-producing areas.
India's sixth-largest producer of coffee is Tripura. Arabica and Robusta are two of the most well-known coffee kinds produced in the state and throughout India. The state's annual production of coffee is between 12 and 14 metric tonnes.
On 9,832 hectares of land, Nagaland produces the seventh most coffee in India. The state cultivates coffee on a total area of 9,832 hectares. Furthermore, by 2030, the state's coffee-producing land is anticipated to cover 50,000 hectares. Meghalaya, Manipur, and Assam follow the list with their relative contributions to production.
6. Telangana - Exploring New Avenues
Telangana, known for its historical richness, has been making strides in coffee cultivation. The state government's initiatives to promote coffee farming have led to the expansion of coffee plantations. With suitable climates and a dedicated approach, Telangana is becoming a significant coffee producer.
Robusta coffee beans have found a comfortable home in Telangana's soil. These beans, known for their boldness and strong flavour, thrive in the state's warmer climate. As a result, Robusta's production has surged, contributing to the state's increasing coffee output.
7. Assam - Diversification into Coffee
Assam, famous for its tea gardens, is gradually diversifying into coffee cultivation. The state's experience with tea has provided a strong foundation for entering the coffee industry. The shift is driven by the changing preferences of consumers and the need for sustainable crop options.
The unique climate of Assam has opened doors for both Arabica and Robusta coffee varieties. While Arabica beans thrive at higher elevations, Robusta beans flourish in the lower altitudes. This diversity allows Assam to offer a spectrum of coffee flavours that cater to different palates.
Assam's climate, characterised by heavy rainfall and humidity, imparts distinct flavours to its coffee beans. The beans mature slowly due to the climate, allowing them to develop rich and complex profiles. Coffee connoisseurs appreciate the earthy and deep flavours that are a hallmark of Assam's coffee.
8. Maharashtra - Cultivating Coffee in the West
The Western Ghats of Maharashtra provide an enchanting backdrop for coffee cultivation. The altitude and lush landscapes create a favourable environment for high-quality beans. Maharashtra's coffee plantations offer not only a visual treat but also a taste of premium coffee.
Maharashtra boasts coffee estates that reflect a blend of tradition and modernity. The estates are not just places of production but also hubs of experiences. Tourists and enthusiasts can explore the journey from bean to cup, witnessing the meticulous processes that result in that perfect brew.
Recognizing the potential of coffee cultivation, the Maharashtra government has introduced various initiatives to support coffee farmers. These include financial aid, technical guidance, and access to markets. Such support has significantly contributed to the growth of coffee production in the state.
9. Goa - Blending Coffee and Tourism
Goa's allure extends beyond its beaches. The state has a history of coffee cultivation that aligns seamlessly with its vibrant culture. Coffee plantations here benefit from the region's unique blend of soil and climate, resulting in distinctive flavours.
Coffee isn't just a crop in Goa; it's part of the state's cultural heritage. Traditional households often have their coffee plantations, preserving age-old methods of cultivation. The aroma of freshly brewed coffee is a sensory delight that resonates with the soul of Goa.
Goa has ingeniously merged its love for coffee with its thriving tourism industry. Coffee plantations have become tourist attractions, offering immersive experiences. Visitors can now stroll through coffee groves, learn about the intricacies of cultivation, and savour the taste of freshly brewed Goan coffee.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)
A. Which is the largest coffee-producing state in India?
B. Which state produces the most high-quality coffee?
Ans- The answer to both questions is Karnataka. Kerala is the next-largest contributor to India's total coffee production after Karnataka. Around 21% of India's coffee is grown in Kerala. Karnataka and Kerala generate around 90% of all the coffee made in India. Tamil Nadu produces 5% of all coffee in India, making it the third-highest beverage producer.
In order for you to decide to spend your next holiday in one of these stunning coffee-producing states in India, this article was helpful and enlightening about the coffee-growing regions in India. If you cannot do that for yourself, however, how about trying the flavour Blend Coffee from our own homegrown coffee company in India, which will allow you to enjoy the flavour of these plantations in the comfort of your home with your morning brew?